The name of Riyadh province is modern name not mentioned in the geography heritage books. At old times Riyadh province was included in what is called Al-Sa’eeda to indicate to all of Arabian Peninsula which we know nowadays. Riyadh province represents what is called Najd by the Muslim ****. It includes Najd with its two parts: upper Najd and lower Najd. It is located in the middle of kingdom of Saudi Arabia and considered the second biggest province after the eastern region in terms of area and the second after Mecca province in terms of population with a rate of 22.63% of the kingdom total population.
Riyadh province is characterized by being the starting point of country unification. It is center is in city of Riyadh, the country capital and the center of governance and management and the biggest urban center in the country. In spite of its natural qualities and its vast area, it is considered symmetric province in its qualities and characteristics from the geographic and historical perspective. Riyadh province is characterized with privacy among the kingdom of Saudi Arabia areas and this in the field of **** as it was the point from which thee*************. In addition, it includes the governance palace which represents the actual start of the kingdom kings from late king Faisal. The governance palace represents the ancient history and constructional heritage of Riyadh province in particular and the kingdom on general.
The privacy of this province occurred in two main axes of the country construction and establishment axes which are: the political axis and country structure and science and *** axis. In addition to the governance palace, the monuments and historical places in Riyadh city include Al-Musmak palacam Al-Muraba’ palace, Afif palace, Al-Shamisya palace, Al-Tarif district, and Manfouha tower.
With the issuance of the provinces system by royal decree number a/92 in 27/8/1412H which modified by royal decree number a/21 in 30/3/1414G which divides the kingdom of Saudi Arabia into thirteen provinces, Riyadh province became one of these provinces.
Riyadh province lies in the middle of kingdom of Saudi Arabia i.e. in the heart of it between longitudes 4200 and 4817 from east and latitudes 1900 and 2745 from north. It is bounded by the eastern region from the east, Najran province from the south, Aseer province from western south, and Mecca province and a part of Medina province from the west. Riyadh province extends towards the north to include Al-Artawya center which follow Al-Mujamma’a governorate at a distance of 305 kilometers and extends towards the south to Al-Khamaseen and the other centers of Wadi Al-Dawaser at a distance of 700 kilometers. It reaches in its northern and eastern boundaries to include the centers of Ramah governorate at a distance of more than 150 kilometers and its western extension reaches to Afif governorate and its centers at a distance of about 500 kilometers.
Riyadh province area is about (380.000) square kilometers or what is equivalent to about 17% of the kingdom area. With this area, it occupies the second position after the eastern region which area is one third of the area of kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh city which is the emirate headquarter and the capital of kingdom of Saudi Arabia lies in the middle of the eastern part of Riyadh province at 24° 39' latitude and 46° 43' longitude. This location provides Riyadh province with an important strategic dimension reflected positively on the development of Riyadh province in particular and the development of the surrounding regions in general.
Riyadh province comes after Mecca province in terms of population as its population is 5.188.286 people i.e. equal 22.63% of the kingdom population. The population density at Riyadh province is estimated with about (5.1) persons for each square kilometer. This rate is considered high if compared to the average population density in the kingdom which is estimated with about (4.6) persons for each square kilometer.
At present time, Riyadh province has desert and continental climate characterized with heat and dryness in summer and coldness in winter with moderate but not ensured rate of rains. The daily and quarterly heat range is large. The rates of climate elements at Riyadh province differ from one governorate to another due to different atmospheric and geographic factors controlled by Allah divine power.
Riyadh province includes various terrains differ in west from east. In the west, there are igneous rocks characterized with their hard rocks and in the east there are sedimentary rocks with less hardness. The different factors of erosion resulted in the existence of different terrains and the waterways divided the main plateau into some plateaus. In upper Najd, there are huge valleys with long ways which its upper tributaries descend from Al-Hejaz mountains peaks.